#energy #climate #geopolitics

U.S. Crude Oil Exports over 200 Thousand Barrels per Day



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Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

Notes from EIA:  On December 18, 2015, the U.S. enacted legislation authorizing the export of U.S. crude oil without a license. Exports to embargoed or sanctioned countries continue to require authorization. Prior to December 2015, crude oil exports were restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Cook Inlet of Alaska; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) certain domestically produced crude oil destined for Canada; (4) shipments to U.S. territories; and (5) California crude oil to Pacific Rim countries. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. 

U.S. Crude Exports Have Risen Dramatically, Mostly Go to Canada and Mexico


After 40 years, U.S. resumes export of crude oil.

By far, the majority heads to Mexico and Canada

Forty years ago, the OPEC oil embargo caused oil prices to skyrocket in the US. In order to keep American prices down,
the U.S. Congress banned the export of crude oil. In 2015, with domestic production rising quickly, Congress voted to lift the export ban. What a difference a year makes. Exports have spiked, especially to Mexico and Canada. During the interim period (1994 – 2015) the US exported small amounts of oil due to loopholes in the export ban and through swaps, where refineries could import heavy crude to blend with domestically produced light crude and increase refinery efficiency.

India – Iran Relations: Opportunities for the United States in Southwest Asia

Read the full report here (PDF)



Although freed from sanctions after Implementation Day in January 2016, India and Iran have not managed to make good on their long-standing ambition to transform their modest bilateral relationship into a grand, strategic partnership. They are yet to take advantage of their complementary energy resource needs and Iran’s geographic position as a gateway to Afghanistan and Central Asia.

Prime Minister Modi and President Rouhani have repeatedly shown interest in developing deeper ties. Indeed, several negotiations for large projects are underway. While they may come through in the coming months, the reticence India has shown toward Iran and Iran’s impatience toward India reveal underlying tensions and constraints for the relationship. Domestic politics, oversupplied hydrocarbons markets, Iran’s continuing precarious position, and India’s delicate balance of relations in the broader Middle East all dampen expectations.

On the surface, this sputtering may look acceptable for the United States – many in Washington continue to see Iran only for its negative impacts on the region or in light of the nuclear deal. Yet, a close look at U.S. interests in India, Iran, and their surrounding region suggests that the implications of a realized strategic relationship between India and Iran would benefit the United States. To continue to grow its economic output at the current rapid pace, India needs energy and geographic access to new markets. Iran is more likely to comply with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action if it sees quick tangible economic gains, which India can help provide.

While potential geopolitical ramifications include violence or less cooperation from Pakistan or Saudi Arabia, who could react negatively to cooperation between rivals, the new dynamics of the region – namely the increased involvement and weight of China and India – make it possible to avoid the zero-sum ties that have long been sources of friction.


Given the large advantages but potential drawbacks, I recommend that the United States pursue a strategy that supports the India-Iran relationship while hedging against both Iran’s uncertain trajectory and regional perceptions of encirclement. To do this, the United States should double down on relations with India and broaden political dialogue on Afghanistan to involve all stakeholders.

To support the relationship, the United States should:

  • Assist with project financing and assessments for the private sector.
  • Clarify its position on secondary sanctions.
  • Invite Iran to regional Afghanistan talks.

To hedge against Iran’s uncertain political trajectory and Pakistan’s sense of encirclement, the United States should:

  • Sell LNG to India at a competitive price to increase energy ties in the case of snapback sanctions.
  • Support a continued comprehensive dialogue between India and Pakistan.

This report’s ultimate aim is to point Washington back toward the relationship between New Delhi and Tehran, and show, against conventional wisdom, that a significant deepening of their relations could in fact be a boon for U.S. national interests.

CONTINUE READING.  Part I: India-Iran Bilateral Relations

Who Is Building New Nuclear Power?


data: Freedom House & Nuclear Energy Institute (April 2016)

In recent years crude production of major producers has little to do with price

Wide Version

data: EIA. Drag to zoom. Hover to see values. Double-click to reset.

OPEC Production ~ Price, Time Series


data: EIA. Drag to zoom. Hover to see values. Double-click to reset.

OPEC Oil Production ~ Price


Hover for values. Drag/pinch to zoom.

US Electricity Prices by State, 2015

data from EIA.

Change in Emissions per Capita, US & EU, 1990 – 2013

CO2 Emissions per Capita by Country, 1990 & 2013.  

data: World Bank

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